Judo is a martial art created in Japan by Jigoro Kano in 1882. Kano's goal was to utilize a style based on maximum efficiency via minimum effort.  In short, resisting a more powerful opponent will result in your defeat, whilst adjusting to and evading your opponent’s attack will cause him to lose his balance, reduce his power, and allow him to be defeated.  Judo accomplishes this by the usage of throws, takedowns, pins, joint locks, and chokes.  The worldwide spread and success of Judo has led to the development of a number of well-recognized combat arts such as Sambo and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu.